In order to prevent the circuits of each layer from interfering with each other, it is necessary to perform precise motion control on the upper and lower platforms. When scanning, the upper and lower platforms should be in a stage of uniform motion. The smallest stacking error is currently less than 2nm (within a single machine) or 3nm (between different machines).
The wavelength of the light source is generally 365, 248, 193, 157 or even 13.5nm (EUV, Extreme Ultraviolet). Because the lithography process is limited by diffraction, the smaller the wavelength of the light source, the smaller the chip size that can be made.
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Adding a liquid with a refractive index greater than 1 (such as water) between the lens and the wafer can reduce the wavelength of light, thereby improving NA (numerical aperture) and resolution. Such a lithography machine is called an immersion lithography machine.
The manufacturers of high-end lithography machines in the world mainly include ASML, Nikon and Canon. Canon is probably no longer good. Nikon holds an annual meeting called LithoVision.
SOp, also known as SOL and DFp, is a very common form of components. At the same time, it is also one of the surface-mount packages, and the leads are drawn from both sides of the package into a seagull wing shape (L-shape). packaging materials are divided into plastic and ceramic. It began in the late 1970s.
SOp packages have a wide range of applications. In addition to memory LSIs, SOp packages are the most popular surface mount packages in areas where the input and output terminals do not exceed 10-40. Later, in order to meet the needs of production, some small outline packages such as SOJ, SSOp, TSSOp, and SOIC were gradually derived.